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   Table of Contents - Current issue
April-June 2021
Volume 8 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 39-86

Online since Tuesday, June 1, 2021

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Jia You (加油) Highly accessed article p. 39
William W Tseng, Tom Wei-Wu Chen
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A new metabolite: The effects of aminated tetrahydrocurcumin on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 p. 41
Yen- Chun Koh, Sheng- Yang Liu, Jia- Ching Wu, Ya- Chun Chou, Kalyanam Nagabhushanam, Chi- Tang Ho, Min- Hsiung Pan
Background: Curcumin and its metabolite, tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), have been widely studied due to their compelling capabilities in the prevention of various diseases. However, these compounds face some shortcomings, including the bioavailability of curcumin and comparatively weaker anti-inflammatory effects of THC. The amination of natural compounds in the hosts' colons has garnered attention because these aminated compounds retain and even increase their bioactivity relative to their original counterparts. Materials and Methods: The existence of THC-NH2 as a metabolite of THC in mice feces was analyzed by using LC-MS. Three-week DSS-induced colitis in mice experiment was designed to confirm the ameliorative effect of THC-NH2 on inflammatory bowel disease. The anti-inflammatory effect of THC-NH2 on LPS-treated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cell line was further clarified in vitro. Results: In this study, the metabolite 3-amino-3-deoxytetrahydrocurcumin (THC-NH2) was discovered in the feces of mice administered with THC. Compared to THC, THC-NH2 exhibits greater anti-inflammatory effects in terms of nitric oxide production. In a study of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in which animal subjects were supplied with both THC and THC-NH2, each sample displayed encouraging but not compelling effects on inflammation reduction. In vitro research revealed that intervention using THC-NH2 could significantly reduce protein expression levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) but cause the accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). By using cycloheximide, THC-NH2 was found to retard the degradation of COX-2 by increasing its stability. However, mRNA levels of COX-2 and concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in spent medium indicated that COX-2 activity did not increase alongside its accumulated protein level, though no significant effects on the reduction of COX-2 activity were seen. Conclusion: As the current body of research is inadequate, in order to ensure that all things are considered, the efficacy and safety of THC-NH2 as a pharmaceutical drug require further investigation. Nevertheless, recent results showed that THC-NH2 can be used in multi-targeting anti-inflammation drugs to inhibit iNOS levels and reduce the side effects of COX-2 inhibitors by acting as a competitive inhibitor.
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Information, education, and communication as a strategy for enhancing knowledge of cervical cancer among women in Benin city, Nigeria p. 54
Lucy Omonon Chukwuka, Olaolorunpo Olorunfemi, Funmilayo Okanlawon, Ngozi Rosemary Osunde, Abiodun A Ogunniran
Background: In Nigeria, approximately 80% of women who develop cervical cancer (CC) die annually from the disease. In Benin City, it is the most common type of cancer, accounting for 74.6% of gynecological admissions. The high incidence and death rate of CC are attributable to a lack of knowledge of the disease. Consequently, this study aims to determine the effects of information, education, and communication (IEC) as a strategy for enhancing CC knowledge among women. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study utilized a multi-stage sampling procedure. First, Egor Local Government Area (LGA) was selected out of five LGAs in Benin City by balloting. Second, two health centers, Egor and Evbuotubu, were randomly assigned to the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG), respectively. Third, 200 participants per group were selected using a systematic sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, logistic regression, and repeated analysis of variance at α 0.05. Results: The mean ages of the participants were 38.4 ± 8.0 (EG) and 34.5 ± 8.0 (CG) years. There were no significant differences in age (P = 0.17), educational status (P = 0.18), and occupation (P = 0.43) between the two groups. The participants' knowledge at P1 for the EG (6.3 ± 4.6) was comparable with the CG (8.3 ± 5.4). At P2 and P3, knowledge scores increased significantly in the EG (17.9 ± 2.2; 15.4 ± 3.2, respectively) compared with the CG (8.5 ± 4.9; 8.4 ± 5.4, respectively). Comparisons of P1, P2, and P3 in the EG revealed significant differences in mean scores. Conclusion: An IEC strategy increased knowledge of CC. Therefore, we strongly recommend integrating this approach into public health education strategies for women at primary and secondary health-care centers.
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Dacarbazine and bevacizumab improved paraneoplastic doege–potter syndrome of malignant solitary fibrous tumor p. 68
Ching- Tso Chen, Jen- Chieh Lee, Shih- Chiang Huang, Tom Wei-Wu Chen
Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare soft-tissue tumors that often occur in body cavities, especially the pleural space. A subset of SFTs is histologically malignant and tends to metastasize; rarely, they may induce paraneoplastic syndromes. Doege–Potter syndrome is paraneoplastic hypoglycemia induced by oversecretion of unprocessed insulin-growth factor-2. While localized SFTs are treated mainly by surgery, the standard therapy for metastatic SFTs is lacking. Here, we present a case with metastatic malignant SFT and Doege–Potter syndrome, which was treated initially by dacarbazine and bevacizumab with a period of good clinical response.
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Effect of immune checkpoint inhibitors in gynecologic cancer associated with defective mismatch repair and a rare immunotherapy-related adverse event p. 73
Ming- Chun Kuo, Chien- Ting Liu
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved the outcome and overall survival of patients with cancer. However, predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy remains difficult. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is vital for identifying and repairing mismatched nucleotides during genetic recombination. Cancers with defective MMR involve thousands of mutations and are defined as having microsatellite instability (MSI) and demonstrate a high immunotherapy response rate. Therefore, MSI could be a biomarker for predicting the response to ICIs. Herein, we present two patients with MSI-high gynecologic malignancies who demonstrated a complete response to ICI treatment, but along with panuveitis, a rare immunotherapy-related adverse event in one of the cases.
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Squamous cell carcinoma arising in recurrent pilonidal sinus in an older woman p. 78
Yu- Ting Hung
Malignant transformation is a rare complication of pilonidal sinus. We report the case of a 90-year-old female who had a recurrent pilonidal sinus with fistulous abscess formation. We excised the whole pilonidal sinus because the infection could not be controlled by oral antibiotics. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was found in the sinus tract with a negative surgical margin. A whole abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, which showed no distant metastasis and no enlargement of the bilateral inguinal lymph nodes. This case study illustrates that SCC transformation may present in the recurrent and long-standing pilonidal sinus. We suggested that all pilonidal sinus lesions should be sent for pathologic examination to early detect malignant transformation.
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Retroperitoneal metastasis of metaplastic breast cancer causing hydronephrosis p. 81
Yen- Tony Tzeng, I- Hsuan Alan Chen, Jung- Chia Lin
Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MpBC) accounts for <5% of all cases of breast cancer. Retroperitoneal metastasis is also a rare metastatic site of breast cancer. We report a case of retroperitoneal metastasis of MpBC which was extirpated by transperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. The patient was free of disease for 30 months. We also discuss the presentation, diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal metastasis of MpBC causing hydronephrosis.
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A rare presentation of interstitial lung disease in a follow-up patient with breast carcinoma p. 84
Lithika M Lavanya, TR Arulponni
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The incidence is increasing in developing countries. Adjuvant radiation reduces ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and, in turn, improves overall survival in both early and locally advanced breast cancer patients who have undergone breast conservation surgery and mastectomy, respectively. The lung is one of the dose-limiting organs in thoracic radiation. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis is rare, ranging from 5% to 15%. The incidence has further decreased with newer techniques of radiation treatment delivery. Here, we present a case of right breast carcinoma with an atypical presentation of interstitial lung disease 5 years after treatment.
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